Gender brings up issues of divisions, market segmentation, politics, discrimination and binary and non-binary gender identities.


Sex is your biological makeup; your chromosomes, you DNA, your body.

Gender is how you identify yourself and think of yourself.

Sexuality is about your sexual identity; who you like, who you crush on, who you are attracted to.


Gender Politics: Feminism

There are four waves of Feminism.

First wave Feminism consists of the work conducted largely by the Suffragettes in gaining the right to vote for women. Women wanted to be seen as autonomous and not just as an extension of their father or their husband.

Second wave Feminism consists of women’s sexual and reproductive rights, their employment rights and challenging patriarchal norms and systemic inequalities.

Third wave Feminism allies itself with identity politics by including ‘Queer Theory’. Third wave Feminism is mostly anti-porn and ‘sexualisation’. There is also more discussion here about inequalities faced by men.

Fourth wave Feminism is about the importance of global spread and global issues. It recognises the plurality of genders and sexualities. In issues of porn and sexualisation, fourth wave is seen as more liberal than third wave. There is a lot of campaigning especially on the internet e.g. #heforshe which also called on men to help. There is further alignment with other identity politics.

Radical Feminism sees the call for radical social change to abolish the patriarchy and radical Feminism also has controversial views on transgender issues, however, in general most radical Feminists share many of the second and third wave concerns.

Post-Feminism is the idea that Feminism’s work is complete. It is often seen as capitalistic and patriarchal by Feminists.

Men’s Rights Activists are largely satirical in nature but raise points about issues that affect men. However, they often seem to not realise male privilege and feminists have a role in progressing gender equality.

Big issues within gender include: Gender pay gaps, domestic violence for both men and women and sexual orientation around the world. 


Market Segmentation

Toys, clothing and books are still subject to obvious segmentation between MALES and FEMALES.

e.g. Colouring books are marketed in blue for ‘brilliant boys’ and pink for ‘beautiful girls’.

e.g Marvel and Star Wars toys have been made without female characters despite females being some of the main characters, especially in Star Wars where Rey IS the main character.

Magazines are segmented: the worlds created within magazines are rarely true in the world ‘outside of their pages’. (Winship, 1987: 7)

The Bechdel Test:



These notes are from my Year 2 Semester 1 Lectures and Seminars. The images were taken from this weeks lecture, I do not own them.

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